Explained: What is KAVACH in Indian Railways? Features, Mechanics, Development and more

Last weekend was difficult for our country, around 288 people lost their lives and nearly 1000 died in the Balasore train accident. This catastrophic incident has put a question mark on Kavach, the automatic train protection system. According to the PIB report, Kavach is designed to assist locomotive operators in avoiding Signal Transmitting at Danger (SPAD) and overspeeding, while also supporting train operations in adverse weather conditions such as dew. dense fog.

#BharatKaKavachKavach: Automatic ship protection system (ATP). pic.twitter.com/2XVJYxNCoN

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March 4, 2022

What is Kavach?

The Kavach automatic train protection (ATP) system was created by the Research Design & Standards Organization (RDSO) for the Indian Railways. Safety Integrity Level 4 (SIL-4) certified technology makes up the Kavach system. In 2012, work on developing an Indian automatic protection system or collision avoidance system got underway as the Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) project. The Kavach system is being developed as part of Indian Railways’ efforts to be accident-free.

The outstanding features of the above mentioned Kavach system are

  • Kavach helps maintain the train’s speed by applying automatic brakes in any unusual situations
  • In foggy weather and high speeds, it repeats roadside signals in the cabin and whistles automatically at the LC port.
  • Kavach operates on the principle of continuous updating of the Movement’s authority.
  • Aoid collides maximum number of times when communicating directly between locos.
  • It actively uses SOS to prevent any kind of mishaps and accidents.

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Working mechanism

The system includes several electronic and RFID devices placed in locomotives, tracks, railway signaling systems and each station at a distance of one kilometer. While a 4G LTE-based system is being developed, it currently uses extremely high radio frequencies to connect to its components. When the locomotive driver receives a signal (Transmitted Signal During Danger or SPAD), which is the main cause of train accidents, Kavach sends a warning. When the system detects another train on the same line within a set distance, it can immediately alert the locomotive operator and control the braking system. In inclement weather, such as fog, this device continuously monitors the train’s progress and transmits a forward signal to the engine. Kavach incorporates key elements from both Indian anti-collision equipment and the European Ship Control System.


Kavach is currently deployed on 1200 km of 1445 km of tracks of the South Central Railway region, 65 locomotives and 134 stops. As part of Indian Railways’ Mission Raftar project, the Kavach automatic protection system will be updated to handle a maximum speed of 160 km/h before being put into use on the 3000 km stretch of the line main New Delhi-Mumbai and Howrah-Delhi. main line.

The Golden Quadrilateral railway line and Kavach system have been approved for accelerated development in India’s Union Budget for the financial years 2022–2023 and 34,000 km respectively.

The newly built WAG-9HH locomotive, with a maximum speed of 120 km/h, will be equipped with the Kavach automatic protection system. The amount spent on the development of Kavach is 16.99 crores. With a completion date of March 2024, Kavach implementation is planned on the New Delhi-Howrah and New Delhi-Mumbai routes.

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Source: pagasa.edu.vn

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